THE SKIN, WHAT IS AND HOW IS IT COMPOSED? The skin is a membrane that covers the human body and is the largest organ of our body with a weight of about 8-10 kg and an extension of 1.5-2 m.
It is composed of 3 layers: the epidermis, the dermis, the hypodermis.
The appendages are also part of the skin: the sweat glands, the sebaceous glands, the hair follicle.
The epidermis, the outermost layer
Represents the outermost layer, in direct contact with the environment.
It is a multilayered epithelial tissue, composed of:
- Keratinocytes: cells that produce a fibrous protein called keratin. They are born, grow and die going up from the basal state to the stratum corneum where they are removed through the process of desquamation. This maturation/migration process (cellular turn-over) takes place in about 28 days and is the basis of the continuous renewal of the epidermis;
- Melanocytes: cells that produce melanin that transfer to neighboring keratinocytes;
- Langerhans cells: they carry out immune functions, producing cytokines that activate lymphocytes;
- Merkel cells: considered sensory receptors, capable of perceiving tactile stimuli.
The dermis, just below the epidermis
Located below the epidermis, it is a connective tissue that acts as a support to the skin and skin appendages. Its thickness is varied; minimum in the eyelids and maximum in the areas of the back and tends to decrease with age.
In the dermis, three components can be distinguished: the cells, the fibers, and the fundamental substance.
- The cells
- Fibroblasts : spindle cells that produce both dermis fibers and the fundamental substance.
- Mast cells: cells that intervene in the inflammatory response releasing numerous substances (the most important is histamine);
- Cells migrated from the blood: (macrophages, granulocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells) more numerous in the course of inflammation.
- The fibers
- Collagen fibers: they are the most abundant consisting of aggregates of fibrils gathered in parallel bundles uniformly distributed throughout the thickness of the dermis. They have a supporting function and give mechanical resistance to the dermis;
- Reticular fibers: precursors of collagen fibers;
- Elastic fibers: they form a net with large meshes that gives elasticity to the skin. The alteration of these fibers is the main cause of the phenomenon of “striae distensae”, and of photoaging
- The fundamental substance
It is a gel formed by water, ions, proteins, glucose and acid mucopolysaccharides, of which the most important is hyaluronic acid (a substance capable of retaining water that promotes skin hydration). Its main function is to spread nutrients and oxygen.
The dermis, unlike the epidermis, is richly innervated and vascularized.
The hypodermis, below the dermis
Composed of a layer of fat cells placed below the dermis, it represents the “buffer” of fat that separates the skin from the underlying organs.
Its functions are:
- mechanical protection of internal organs;
- thermal insulation;
- energy reserve.
The skin circulation
Skin spraying is guaranteed by a rich arterial, venous and lymphatic system distributed in the dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis is devoid of vessels.
The color of the skin
The color of the skin depends on the presence and distribution of melanin and varies according to the breed.
Varies according to the following factors:
- age: darker in adults than in infants and children:
- body region: darker in the genital, perianal and axillary areas, mammary areoles and body regions more exposed to light;
- habits and living conditions: darker for example in people working in the open air.
The skin performs the following main functions:
- body lining and protection;
- allows exchanges with the outside world;
- it is the first indicator of inflammatory or metabolic pathologies.
Farmavit Excellency Line
The Farmavit has devised a complete range of lines and products to take care of facial skin, giving it energy and vitality and visibly reducing wrinkles, lines, and signs of aging:
- Mandelic Acid: treatment with cyclodextrins to make the skin more luminous, compact and clear, visibly reducing wrinkles and lines of the epidermis, acting at the same time on melasma, hyperpigmentation, and freckles;
- Creams and Serums: products to protect, restructure, hydrate, give energy and vitality to the skin of the face, visibly reducing wrinkles, lines and signs of aging;
- Face Cleaning: products that help to remove makeup residues by removing impurities and leaving the skin soft, hydrated and radiant;
- Sunshine: products to protect the skin during and after exposure to the sun ensuring vitality, hydrating and providing relief and a feeling of immediate freshness.